Robotics Technology

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Robotics Technology


 

OVERVIEW

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What Is Robotics?

Robotics is the intersection of science, engineering and technology that produces machines, called robots, that substitute for (or replicate) human actions. Pop culture has always been fascinated with robots. R2-D2. Optimus Prime. WALL-E. These over-exaggerated, humanoid concepts of robots usually seem like a caricature of the real thing...or are they more forward thinking than we realize? Robots are gaining intellectual and mechanical capabilities that don’t put the possibility of a R2-D2-like machine out of reach in the future.

While the overall world of robotics is expanding, a robot has some consistent characteristics:

  1. Robots all consist of some sort of mechanical construction. The mechanical aspect of a robot helps it complete tasks in the environment for which it’s designed. For example, the Mars 2020 Rover’s wheels are individually motorized and made of titanium tubing that help it firmly grip the harsh terrain of the red planet.
  2. Robots need electrical components that control and power the machinery. Essentially, an electric current (a battery, for example) is needed to power a large majority of robots.
  3. Robots contain at least some level of computer programming. Without a set of code telling it what to do, a robot would just be another piece of simple machinery. Inserting a program into a robot gives it the ability to know when and how to carry out a task.

The robotics industry is still relatively young, but has already made amazing strides. From the deepest depths of our oceans to the highest heights of outer space, robots can be found performing tasks that humans couldn’t dream of achieving.


 

TYPES

  • 100 percent Foreign Direct investment (FDI) is permitted under the automatic route in the auto sector.
  • Licensing and approvals are exempted for manufacturing and imports in this sector.
  • In an attempt to make India more investor friendly and an attractive FDI destination, the FDI Policy 2016-2020 allows 100 percent FDI in the auto component sector.
  • To boost research and development in the sector, the rebates are offered on R&D expenditure.
  • To encourage auto industry, the government has allowed foreign equity investment up to 100% with no minimum investment criteria under automatic approval.
  • The Automotive Mission Plan 2016-26 (AMP 2026), the collective vision of Government of India (government) and the Indian Automotive Industry, emphasizes on where the vehicles, auto components and tractor industries should reach over the next ten years in terms of size, contribution to India’s development, global footprint, technological maturity, competitiveness, institutional structure and capabilities.
  • The AMP 2026 expects India to emerge as one of the top three automobile manufacturing centres in the world with gross revenue of USD 300 billion by 2026.
  • To make India as R&D hub, the government has formed the National Automotive Testing and R&D Infrastructure Project (NATRiP). The project with a total cost of USD 585 million will enable the industry to adopt and implement global performance standards.
  • The National Electric Mobility Mission Plan 2020 (NEMMP) has been formulated to promote affordable and efficient xEVs (hybrid and electric vehicles) through government-industry collaboration. It aims to encourage development of indigenous manufacturing capabilities and technology.
  • A pilot scheme for the initial period of two years in the name of Faster Adoption & Manufacturing of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles, implemented from 1st April 2015 for the initial period of two years.

 

USES

Europe

To protect the environment and improve air quality, emission regulations are adopted as part of the EU framework for the type approval of cars, vans trucks, buses and coaches. At present, the Euro emissions standards followed by the automotive industry are: for light duty vehicles (cars and vans) Euro 6, while the current standard for heavy duty vehicles is Euro VI.

 

China

China “Automobile RoHS”: “Management Requirements for Vehicle Hazardous Substance and Recyclable Utilization Ratios” (“Requirements”), referred to as Chia’s “Automobile RoHS” program, is intended to specify that hazardous substance content and recyclability requirements for certain passenger cars carrying no more than 9 persons (M1 category) meet the specifications set out in two separate standards governing these issues.

New measures concerning restricted-material content and recyclability requirements for certain passenger cars came into effect January 1, 2016.

  • Lead, mercury, hexavalent chromium, polybrominated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers in any homogeneous material of the motor vehicle or motor vehicle parts, by mass fraction, does not exceed 0.1%.
  • Cadmium in any homogenous material of the motor vehicle or motor vehicle parts, by mass fraction, does not exceed 0.01%.

South Korea

As per the Article 30 (Permissible Standards of Noises Produced by Manufactured Cars) of the Noise and Vibration Control Act, the noises emitted from manufactured motor vehicles (hereinafter referred to as “manufactured cars”) need to conform to the permissible manufactured car noise standards as determined by the Presidential Decree.

The exhaust gases from automobiles are regulated under Article 46 (kinds of exhaust gases) of Clean Air Conversation Act.

North America

The United States entails vehicle or other vehicle parts to conform to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations for emission (EPA) and safety (DOT) requirements.